Log in



Hospital Sound Research

ThePowerOfSound.com/HospitalSoundResearch

The following information is in reference to Chapter 9, page 134 of The Power Of Sound.

The Influence of Musical Rhythm in the Perception of Time and Emotions of Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.This study was presented at the Mozart & Science conference, held in Vienna in 2008. Emanating from the University of São Paulo (Brazil), this quasi-experimental study looked at how music and rhythm affected 43 dialysis patients–perceptually and emotionally. Results: More than 80% of the patients felt like time passed faster after listening to the rhythms of both a March and a Waltz. Neither tempo influenced the response to time perception of most patients. However, the sensation of well-being was more strongly felt in the Waltz than in the March. Patients reported that the Waltz provided distraction, decreased anxiety, and stimulated feelings of tranquility and peace. The March stimulated feelings of joy and animation.

The researchers conclusion: “We observed in this study that the kind of rhythm was a key factor in the type of emotion experienced by patients, however the kind of rhythm does not seem to have influenced regarding the perception of time.” 82 perception of time.”82

“Music to Operate By.” Surgeons are likely to do a better job at the operating table if background music is playing. Likewise, they also perform better at nonsurgical mental exercises while listening to music, with reduced blood pressure and pulse rates. The most efficient and accurate surgeries, with the least stress, occur while surgeons listen to music of their choice. However, they also perform better when listening to music chosen by the experimenter than with no music at all, with reduced stress. 68 stress.68

“A Musician Who Performs With a Scalpel.” In 2007, Dr. Claudius Conrad, a surgical resident at Harvard Medical School, published the results of a study examining the effect of Mozart on post-op patients. 69 After surgery, ten patients were outfitted with headphones. As patients.69 After surgery, ten patients were outfitted with headphones. As their sedation wore off, five of the patients were played Mozart music for an hour. The other five recovered in silence. The Mozart patients were expected to have a decrease in stress hormone levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and pain–which they did.

However, there was one unexpected finding: The listeners also experienced a rise in pituitary growth hormone. This hormone is associated with stress response and the healing process. It generally rises with stress and falls with relaxation. Conrad (a piano player since the age of five, with doctorates in musical philosophy and stem cell biology) believes that in this case, the rise in growth hormone may account for sedating responses. He says, “Here, it seems, may be a hormonal parallel to music’s power to simultaneously rouse and soothe.”

Dr. Keith Kelley, an endocrinologist from the University of Illinois doesn’t agree with Conrad. “I personally don’t buy the particular cellular mechanism he’s proposing.” While Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York thinks “This is a really intriguing possibility that bears a closer look.” 70 closer look.”70

“Relaxation Therapy Works.” With a $1,500 budget, cassette players, headphones, and special cassettes were purchased by a children’s hospital in Palo Alto, California. Special attention was paid to compiling a sound library with wide appeal. Three categories of music were included:

• Therapeutic music. Soothing background music and natural sound effects help decrease stress and encourage relaxation (all ages).

• Disease and symptom-specific guided imagery. A narrator helps patients target disease, insomnia, and anxiety, then mitigate them using guided imagery; with or without music. (ages five-plus).

• Stories. These are designed to provide distraction from pain and help children control stress (ages two through twelve).

The patients who found the tapes especially helpful were those with ulcers, bronchospasm, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and insomnia. Because there is a psychological component to most illness, all patients can benefit from relaxation and imagery. 71 and imagery.71

“Music and Pattern Change in Chronic Pain.” In 1993, music was investigated for its use in altering the perception of chronic pain among women with rheumatoid arthritis. Researchers found that sedative music—characterized by a regular rhythm, predictable dynamics, harmonic consonance, and recognizable vocal and instrumental timbre—created a relaxation response that included decreases in heart and respiratory rates, muscle relaxation, sleep, decreased oxygen consumption, lower metabolic rates, and a reduction in circulating corticosteroids. In addition, activated psycho- and physiological responses included endorphin release, autogenic conditioning, and distraction. For critically ill intensive-care patients, significant reductions in blood pressure, anxiety, depression, and pain perception took place following the introduction of music into the environment. Likewise, reductions in nausea and vomiting followed music therapy among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

There were conflicting results regarding the effects of various types of music on anxiety. Researchers suggested that personal preference regarding the type of music used, rather than arbitrary labeling of type (sedative or stimulative), is a significant factor. Reports also pointed to a significant decrease in heart rate and an improvement in mood among cardiac patients in response to classical music.

In relationship to pain reduction, researchers found that the pain perception threshold increased while patients listened to music for a period of time following the sonic intervention. It appears that patients are able to move beyond their pain during the time of listening. It was posited that humor, imagery, sound frequency, breathing, and touch are the essential dimensions of pain transformation. 72

transformation.72

The Influence of Musical Rhythm in the Perception of Time and Emotions of Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.This study was presented at the Mozart & Science conference, held in Vienna in 2008. Emanating from the University of São Paulo (Brazil), this quasi-experimental study looked at how music and rhythm affected 43 dialysis patients–perceptually and emotionally. Results: More than 80% of the patients felt like time passed faster after listening to the rhythms of both a March and a Waltz. Neither tempo influenced the response to time perception of most patients. However, the sensation of well-being was more strongly felt in the Waltz than in the March. Patients reported that the Waltz provided distraction, decreased anxiety, and stimulated feelings of tranquility and peace. The March stimulated feelings of joy and animation.

The researchers conclusion: “We observed in this study that the kind of rhythm was a key factor in the type of emotion experienced by patients, however the kind of rhythm does not seem to have influenced regarding the perception of time.” 82 perception of time.”82

Comments are closed.